James McCann, Placement Director
Fields of Study: Comparative Politics, Political Economy
Dissertation Title: Political Shocks and Economic Reform in the Post-Soviet World
Committee: Dwayne Woods, Chair, Giancarol Visconti, Mark Tilton, and Erik Herron
Summary: My research examines economic liberalization in the transformation from Soviet-style economies and addresses critical juncture theories of path dependence. Specifically, I analyze the adoption of neoliberal economic policy in the wake of two political shocks, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Color Revolutions. I look at whether political and economic policy choices in the aftermath of massive political change significantly constrain future economic policy options. Two influential arguments have attempted to explain post-Soviet economic reform. One theory posits that initial elections are largely responsible for subsequent economic reform, whereas another argument suggests that even the results of initial elections were conditioned by a state’s neighbors and its openness to the world. In the first chapter I quantitatively test how these arguments hold up 20 years later, using regression analysis to update and reanalyze early arguments on the determinants of economic reform in post-Soviet Eurasia. My results indicate that initial elections may have been influential in the short term, but their long-term influence is indirect. Instead, the Soviet collapse created an opening for the establishment of patronage dynamics, and it is these dynamics that largely determine the timing of economic reform. I then use three cases to illustrate why early evaluations of post-Soviet economic reforms need revision. Analysis of Georgia, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan after each shock demonstrates that elites and political institutions are important determinants of reforms, but significant variation and trends are missed when analyzing this region through a path dependence or geographic lens or when relying on quantitative analysis alone. I find that economic policy mirrors political cycles of patronalism in these countries and the effects of shocks on policy are not straightforward. When economic reform does occur, it is often an instrument used to advance other political goals.
Fields of Study: Public Policy
Dissertation Title: There is Power in a Plaza: Social Movements, Democracy and Spatial Politics
Summary: My dissertation uses a mixed-methods approach to interrogate the relationship between the city, as a built and lived environment, and the inclusion of marginalized groups within social movements. Using the Gezi Park protests in Turkey in 2013 and the Women’s Marches in Boston, San. Antonio, and Pittsburgh in 2017, I develop a theoretical explanation for why the built environment can encourage inclusion of diverse groups within movements and the potential effects this can have on local democracy. I then test my expectations through a series of statistical analyses of the 2017 Women’s Marches, using an original dataset. Through this project, I find that the space of the city effects movements ability to develop inclusion, not only when activists are making direct claims to space, as in the Gezi case, but also when activists come together for more abstract goals, as in the case of the Women’s Marches.
Toby L. Lauterbach, Ph.D.
Fields of Study: International Relations (Major), Comparative Politics, and Public Policy
Dissertation Title: Strategic Culture and the Iraq War
Summary: This work concentrates on how cultural assumptions about the conduct of war among US policy makers influenced the Iraq War. Students of international relations generally use the classic logic of power politics to explain national security choices. However, my study reveals that this kind of thinking was distorted by the beliefs that U.S. policymakers held about America’s unique role in the world. As a result, President Bush’s war advisors believed that it would be fairly easy to remake Iraq into a free market democratic society that would serve as a springboard for transforming the Middle East into the image of America and its Western allies. A faith in the superiority of the American way of life, rooted in the belief that the U.S.’s vision of economic and political freedoms are universally applicable, fueled the premise that Iraq would greet American troops as liberators. My analysis illustrates the role culture plays in international security and its impact on specific foreign policy choices such as the Iraq War.
Fields of Study: International Relations (Major), American Politics, and Methodology
Dissertation Title: Agents of Recalcitrance: Decentralization and State Compliance with International Human Rights Treaties
Summary: Previous research has analyzed various domestic mechanisms that make national governments’ commitments to international human rights treaties credible, including national courts, political opposition groups, and non-governmental organizations. But how does the power dynamics within the government affect state compliance with human rights treaties? In this study, I focus on the effect of the central-local governmental structure. My focus on the central-local governmental structure builds on the basic understanding that international human rights norms need to pass through the convoluted political and administrative processes prior to their implementation on the ground. I argue that a decentralized state in which local authorities enjoy more discretion in local matters is less likely to comply with human rights treaties, because decentralization (1) hinders the top-down diffusion of human rights norms between different governmental tiers, (2) creates many local agents that are not subject to pressure from the international society, and (3) enables the central government to deflect international criticism by shifting blame for human rights abuses to local officials. To test my argument, I first conduct cross-national time-series analyses of state compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention Against Torture. I then use qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate China’s compliance with the Convention Against Torture and the United States’ compliance with Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. Complementary streams of evidence from cross-national and within-country analyses suggest that higher levels of decentralization reduce state compliance with human rights treaties.
Elis Vllasi, Ph.D.
Fields of Study: International Relations (Major), Methodology, and Comparative Politics
Dissertation Title: Sabotage: When Motherlands Ruin Foreign Democratization Efforts
Summary: Why do some international efforts to export democracy fail? A few conventional answers: the target country lacks the necessary institutions; leadership is incapable of making the changes required; and third-parties have insufficient influence needed to motivate a new system. My research shows an additional but often overlooked predictor of democratization outcomes—the presence of nearby ethnonational homeland, or motherland that seeks to interfere in the democratization processes of their neighbors as they seek to contest the political borders of the states with whom they share transnational ethnic kin. Democratization is seen as a barrier to promoting the convergence of ethnic and political boundaries. I contend that a motherland can opt for a variety of strategies to challenge the democratization of a target state. Their level of effectiveness at spoiling democratization efforts is a function of the intensity and frequency of events (conflict or cooperative) that a motherland initiates against a target state. Motherlands that are non-democratic regimes and have recently lost territories populated by ethnic kin to a nearby state are more likely to be spoilers than motherlands that are democracies that have split from their kin long ago. My findings show, through a large-N study and a case study, that the level of democracy in a target country is lower when a motherland displays high levels of intensity and frequency for conflict. The Western policymakers should pay close attention to these findings as Western democratization efforts are increasingly challenged worldwide through the use of ethnic identity politics.
Fields of Study: International Relations (Major), Methodology, and Comparative Politics
Dissertation Title: Better Together? Internal Politics among Civil Society Actors at the UN Climate Summits
Summary: My dissertation focuses on the internal power struggle among non-state actors. Conventional wisdom tells us that civil society can potentially enhance democratic legitimacy in international decision-making. I find that the unequal representation of civil society actors in fact undercuts the intrinsic value of democracy in venues such as intergovernmental organizations. In particular, I draw on the inter-organizational network of women’s groups working at the UN climate change summits. I employ a mixed-methods approach, using network analysis, statistical modeling, and in-depth interviews from fieldwork at the UN summits. I have independently collected network and organizational data on over 800 participants at the UN climate change summits over 15 years. I show that civil society actors have increased their participation, as the UN opens up more opportunities for them. The growth is, however, accompanied by unequal representation and increasing division. The unequal participation is driven by variation in civil society actors’ organizational capacity and social connection. The power imbalance renders some groups more influential than others, casting an uneven impact on their governance outcome.