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1. It is my contention that you must study all of the trades related to photography in order to more fully understand photographic history. During the past 22 years, I have documented nearly 10,000 California photographers active before 1910, about 10-15% female. Note that photographic partnerships, such as "Ganter & Ganter," sisters, are counted as an individual, as is each individual sister (i.e. a total of three units). Some women may be listed twice, under both maiden and married names. I have also collected approximately 110,000 California area photographs, the vast majority of which are portraits. For an overview of my work see Palmquist 1991a: 22-32. My most in-depth research is on women photographers active in Califomia 1850-1920 (Palmquist 1992b 110-127).

2. Regarding employment for women during the nineteenth century, see Anonymous 1868.

3. One of Barnes's earliest articles was "Why Ladies Should be Admitted to Membership in Photographic Societies" (Barnes 1889). Some of her most popular lecture topics were "Photography as a Profession for Women" and "Women as Photographers."

4. After 1870, many books written as career guides for women specifically mentioned photography as an employment opportunity. One example noted "Photography now employs many thousands in the country, and there is no part of the business which may not be as successfully performed by a woman as by a man. Already a very considerable percentage of the operators and colorers are women" (Lewis 1871:156).

5. Piece work was particularly common during the production of stereographs, especially after 1870. The work involved a number of repetitive tasks, such as photo-printing, pasting photographs on cards, titling, and filling orders for views.