1 This work is based on chapter 6 of Margaret D. Jacobs, Engendered Encounters: Feminism and Pueblo Cultures, 1879-1934 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, forthcoming) and on an article of the same title to be published in Journal of the Southwest, forthcoming. This essay should not be quoted from or paraphrased without proper citation.

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2 T.J. Jackson Lears, No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880-1920 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1981), 60-96; Miles Orvell, The Real Thing: Imitation and Authenticity in American Culture, 1880-1940 (Chapel Hill: Univ. of NC Press, 1989), 157-197; J.J. Brody, Indian Painters and White Patrons (Albuquerque: U of NM Press, 1971).


3 Kenneth Chapman, "The von Blumenthal-Dougan Project, 1917-1919," unpublished memoirs - Santa Fe, Kenneth Chapman papers, Indian Arts and Research Center (IARC), Santa Fe, New Mexico. For an example of the large numbers of Pueblo women involved, see "Named Artists on IAF Collection Pottery," IAF Potters folder, Indian Arts Fund (IAF) papers, Indian Arts and Research Center, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The list contains few men. Of those included, most painted designs on their wives' pottery, as Julian Martinez did. See also Edwin L. Wade and Katherin L. Chase, "A Personal Passion and Profitable Pursuit: The Katharine Harvey Collection of Native American Fine Art," in The Great Southwest of the Fred Harvey Company and the Santa Fe Railway, ed. Marta Weigle and Barbara A. Babcock (Phoenix: The Heard Museum, 1996), which notes the increasing role of women in collecting Indian art (150-51).


4 Brody, Indian Painters, 66-8, 76, 85; Ruth L. Bunzel, The Pueblo Potter: A Study of Creative Imagination in Primitive Art (New York: Columbia University Press, 1929), 80-83; Lydia L. Wyckoff, "The Sikyatki Revival," in Hopis, Tewas and the American Road, ed. Willard Walker and Lydia L. Wyckoff (Middletown CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1983), 68-9; Alice Marriott, María: The Potter of San Ildefonso (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1948), 152, 155-57. On Chapman, see "Story of the Indian Arts Fund," ca. 1965, 1:92, IAF papers. On Collier, see Kenneth Philp, John Collier's Crusade for Indian Reform (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1977), 94, 101-02, 112, 185, 208, 225, 244; and Robert Fay Schrader, The Indian Arts and Crafts Board: An Aspect of New Deal Indian Policy (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983).


5 Brody, Indian Painters, 126; Samuel L. Gray, Tonita Peña: Quah Ah, 1893-1949 (Albuquerque: Avanyu Publishing, 1990), 12; Winona Garmhausen, History of Indian Arts Education in Santa Fe: The Institute of American Indian Art with Historical Background, 1890-1962 (Santa Fe: Sunstone Press, 1988), 34.


6 E. DeHuff, "The Renaissance of Southwest Indian Art," unpublished mss, ca. 1926, Box 6, Folder 50; E. DeHuff, "American Primitives in Art," unpublished mss, ca. 1924, Box 6, Folder 3; Elizabeth DeHuff to Mrs. [Dorothy Dunn] Kramer, n.d., Box 10, Folder 31; Elizabeth DeHuff to Mother, 11 March 1919, Box 10, Folder 25; Fred Kabotie "to whom it may concern," May 1940, Box 7, Folder 24, all in DeHuff Family papers, Center for Southwest Research, General Library, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. See also Fred Kabotie, with Bill Belknap, Fred Kabotie: Hopi Indian Artist (Flagstaff: Museum of Northern Arizona, 1977), 27-29; Mary Roberts Coolidge, The Rain-Makers: Indians of Arizona and New Mexico (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1929), 103; Brody, Indian Painters, 101; Garmhausen, History of Indian Arts, 34.


7 Kenneth Chapman, "The von Blumenthal-Dougan Project, 1917-1919."


8 "Story of the Indian Arts Fund;" Ann Nolan Clark, "From Basement to Basement, ca. 1965, 1:93, IAF papers. Also see IAF Report, ca. 1963 or 1964, Appendix: Board of Trustees, 1:88, IAF papers and Margaret McKittrick to Kenneth Chapman, 22 November 1927, NMAIA correspondence, Chapman papers, IARC. For more on White's work, see Folder: "ISHAUU, Correspondence, 1923-1929, Box 1D, and Folder: Exposition of Indian Tribal Arts, Inc., 1931, Box 3D, Amelia Elizabeth White papers, Catherine McElvain Library, School of American Research, Santa Fe, New Mexico.


9 Garmhausen, History of Indian Arts Education; Margaret Connell Szasz, Education and the American Indian: The Road to Self-Determination Since 1928, 2d ed. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1977), 3, 19-24, 48-76; Sally Hyer, One House, One Voice, One Heart: Native American Education at the Santa Fe Indian School (Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1990), 31; Brody, Indian Painters, 126-28, 132; brief biography of Mabel Morrow, Mabel Morrow papers, Archives of the Laboratory of Anthropology/Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Santa Fe, New Mexico.


10 The emergence of a group of white women who romanticized Pueblo culture is explored in great depth in Jacobs, Engendered Encounters.


11 "The Exhibit of Contemporary Indian Art at the Century of Progress," Indians at Work 1 (15 July 1934), 29. See also John Sloan and Oliver La Farge, "Introduction to American Indian Art," pamphlet from Exposition of Indian Tribal Arts, Inc., 1931, Box 3D, White papers.


12 Bunzel, Pueblo Potter, 68.


13 Elizabeth DeHuff to Mrs. [Dorothy Dunn] Kramer, n.d., Box 10, Folder 31, DeHuff Family papers; E. DeHuff, "The Renaissance of Southwest Indian Art," manuscript, ca. 1926, Box 6, Folder 50, DeHuff Family papers; Marriott, María, 157; Margaret McKittrick, NMAIA, to Mary Austin, 20 June 1930, AU 4135, Mary Austin papers, Huntington Library, San Marino, California; IAF Bulletin #3, 1928, IAF papers; Bunzel, Pueblo Potter, 88.


14 Josephine Richards, "The Training of the Indian Girl as the Uplifter of the Home," Proceedings and Addresses, National Education Association, vol. 39 (1900), 704; True to Mrs. Markoe, Board of Indian Rights Association, 22 April 1925, Indian Rights Association (IRA) papers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Microfilm edition (Glen Rock NJ: Microfilming Corporation of America, 1975), Reel 41.


15 "The Use of Indian Designs in the Government Schools," U.S. Office of Indian Affairs Report, n.d., [ca. 1930?], Chapman papers, Archives of the Laboratory of Anthropology/Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Santa Fe, New Mexico.


16 L.G. Moses, "Wild West Shows, Reformers, and the Image of the American Indian, 1887-1914" in South Dakota History 14 (Fall 1984): 193-221.


17 Southwest Indian Fair Committee, Report on Shiprock Fair, 1933, Indian Fairs, 1933, Chapman papers, IARC.


18 Barbara Leslie Epstein, The Politics of Domesticity: Women, Evangelism, and Temperance in Nineteenth-Century America (Middletown CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1981); David J. Pivar, Purity Crusade: Sexual Morality and Social Control, 1868-1900 (Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1973); Peggy Pascoe, Relations of Rescue: The Search for Female Moral Authority in the American West, 1874-1939 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990); Ruth Rosen, The Lost Sisterhood: Prostitution in America, 1900-1918 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982), 51-68; Ellen K. Rothman, Hands and Hearts: A History of Courtship in America (New York: Basic Books, 1984), 186-200; Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, "A Richer and a Gentler Sex," Social Research, 53 (Summer 1986): 297.


19 Dissette to Miss Willard, 3 March 1924, IRA papers, Reel 40; Pascoe, Relations of Rescue, 31, 39-40, 56, 211.


20 Peter Gabriel Filene, Him/Her/Self: Sex Roles in Modern America (New York: Harcourt, Brace, & Jovanovich, 1974), 1-168; John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper & Row, 1988), 171-274; Elaine Tyler May, Great Expectations: Marriage and Divorce in Post-Victorian America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980); Paula S. Fass, The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977); Paul A. Robinson, The Modernization of Sex: Havelock Ellis, Alfred Kinsey, William Masters and Virginia Johnson (New York: Harper & Row, 1976), 1-41; William L. O'Neill, Divorce in the Progressive Era (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967); Kathy Peiss, Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986); Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, "The New Woman as Androgyne: Social Disorder and Gender Crisis, 1870-1936," in Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985), 245-296; Lois Rudnick, "The New Woman," in 1915: The Cultural Moment: The New Politics, the New Woman, the New Psychology, the New Art and the New Theatre in America, ed. Adele Heller and Lois Rudnick (New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991), 69-81; Kathy Peiss and Christina Simmons, introduction, Passion and Power: Sexuality in History, ed. Kathy Peiss and Christina Simmons (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989), 3-13.


21 Mary Austin, Taos Pueblo, photographs by Ansel Easton Adams (San Francisco: Grabhorn Press, 1930), no page numbers.


22 "New Mexico Indian Squaw Earns $5,000 a Year Making Pottery," syndicated article, n.d. [ca. 1931], clipping in Box 3D, Folder: Misc. Clippings, 1931-33, White papers.


23 Mary Austin, "Sex Emancipation Through War," Forum 49 (May 1918): 611.


24 Marriott, María, quotes, 167; story of black on-black ware, 173, 201-02.


25 Elizabeth DeHuff, "Pueblo Episodes," unpublished mss, Box 6, Folder 48, DeHuff papers.


26 Elizabeth DeHuff, "The Procession of the Pots," New Mexico Morning Examiner, 5 March 1939, Box 9, DeHuff papers.


27 Elizabeth DeHuff, "Sketching Pueblo Friends," unpublished manuscript, n.d., Box 6, Folder 56; DeHuff papers, Susan Peterson, The Living Tradition of Maria Martinez (New York: Kodansha International, 1977), 85.