|In Constructing the "Criollo" Archive,
Antony Higgins brings to light the dynamic of knowledge and power that
unfolds in the writings of the criollos of eighteenth-century New
Spain and Guatemala. Focusing on a period neglected by scholars, Higgins
reconstructs how during the colonial period criollos--individuals
identified as being of Spanish descent born in America--elaborated a body
of knowledge, an "archive," in order to establish their intellectual
autonomy within the Spanish colonial administrative structures.
Higgins considers a pair of Latin texts by two criollo intellectuals,
cleric and scholar Juan José de Eguiara y Eguren (1696-1763) and
Jesuit poet Rafael Landívar (1731-93). Examining first Eguiara's
historiographic catalogue the Bibliotheca Mexicana (1755), Higgins
shows that Eguiara was attempting to combine the intellectual achievements
of both the pre-Hispanic and post-Conquest cultures of Mesoamerica into
a single body of learning to be labeled criollo. Higgins then scrutinizes
Landívar's descriptive poem the Rusticatio Mexicana (1781;
1782), demonstrating that Landívar tried to clarify the manner
in which anomalous aspects of American nature and culture are conceived
by employing, alternately, the techniques of scientific observation and
the newly defined aesthetic registers of the beautiful and the sublime.
Through his discussion of these two works, Higgins illustrates how Eguiara
and Landívar helped to create the Spanish colonial regime of knowledge
that would be relied upon in the nineteenth century by the postindependence
elites of Spanish America.
This book opens up an important area of research that will be of interest
to scholars and students of Spanish American colonial literature and history.
"I find this book to be an original and timely contribution to
colonial Latin American studies, and to the study of eighteenth-century
Hispanic letters in particular. I appreciate the mix of poetry and prose
writing under consideration, and Higgins's ability to make sense of
works that have long been considered inaccessible or of little interest
to modern readers and scholars." Karen Stolley, Emory University
"Anthony Higgins's Consructing the Criollo Archive deals
with an area of colonial literary production that has received almost
no critical atttention at all: texts written in Latin.... Higgins's
aim is to explore the emergence of a criollo subject during
the eighteenth century, and how that subject constructed knowledge as
a way to legitimate the power and privilege that criollos had
in their society... Higgins also studies the way these two texts are
part of the emergence of a discourse of modernity in Latin America.
Under this light, the juxtapostion of these two texts becomes more relevant.
Eguiara is still writing from a baroque perspective, whereas Landívar
has moved into the lanugage of the enlightenment.... Higgins's reading
of the poem is illuminating, and is a welcome step into an area that
needs much further study: the work of the exiled Jesuits. Indeed, while
in Italy, this group of intellectuals produced some of the fundamental
works that would shape the historical and political discourse of the
post-independence nineteenth-centruy Latin American nations; texts that,
once again with a few exceptions, are begging for critical editions
and new readings." Francisco Javier Cevallos, Colonial Latin
For the complete review, see Colonial Latin American Review 10.2
(Dec. 2001): 297-300.
"Higgins vuelve a llamar nuestra atención sobre estos textos,
abriendo su estudio con un ambicioso marco crítico que incluye
algunas de las vertientes teóricas que preocupan actualmente
al mundo académico estadounidense, tales la creación del
sujeto colonial, las esfera pública y la noción de archivo....
Higgins termina su libro con un amplio abanico de pregunatas a manera
de derroteros para futuros investigadores, abriendo el apetito a lo
que queda por hacerse en los estudios virreinales." Beatriz de
Alba-Koch, Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispanicos
For the complete review, see Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispanicos
27.2 (Jan. 2003): 21-22.
"...ambitious and provocative study, ....clearly argued and written....
this is a very good book that will inspire the writing of others on
eighteenth-century Spanish American culture, and it deserves a wide
audience." Ruth Hill, Dieciocho
For the complete review, see Dieciocho 24.1 (Spring
"Higgins suggests that researchers in colonial Latin American
literature investigate the cultural and political impact of other criollo
intellectuals." J.A. Gagliano, Choice
For the complete review, see Choice, April 2001.
"... the late Antony Higgins' study of Eguiara y Eguren and Landívar
stands very self-consciously outside [Mexican classical] tradition....
the very purpose of his audacious project is in fact to characterize
eighteenth-century humanism in terms of struggles for power and intellectual
authority in colonial Spanish America.... H. has little interest in
critical evaluation or Quellenforschung....This refusal to
wear a philological uniform is not a weakness of the book but one of
its major strengths. All too often and for far too long, neo-Latin scholars
have read the texts in their domain as footnotes to Virgil or Cicero,
as the kind of texts they would like to produce themselves if only they
could. Yet, as H. himself points out (14), within the culture of eighteenth-century
Mexico 'criollos would have been as comfortable writing in
Latin as they were in Castilian.'" Andrew Laird, Journal of
For the complete review, see Journal of Roman Studies (JRS)
43 (2003): 345-47.
For another review, see Book News.
Antony Higgins (d. 2001) was an assistant professor at Duke University.
He authored articles on Mexican and Peruvian colonial literature, focusing
on questions of ethnicity and race, satirical writing, and intersections
between literature and paradigms of knowledge during the Baroque period
and the eighteenth century in colonial Spanish America.
2000. PSRL 21. xiv, 182 pp. Cloth $29.95 PRICE REDUCED